Plasma, Gasification, Melting and Closed Cycle of CO2 Technology - PGMCC Technology
PGMCC Technology provides the environmentally safe processing of solid household and industrial waste and biomass with electric power and heat generation and production of marketable products from CO2 and the algae on the basis of High-Temperature Plasma , Gas Turbine and Algae technologies. PGMCC Technology is not a simple combination of technologies. Innovating integration of High-Temperature Plasma, Gas Turbine and Algae Technologies and the convergence of these technologies provides a synergistic effect, namely Eco Emission Closed - Loop Production & Utilizing Cycle with high level of maneuverability of waste processing technological process.
The main feature of the developed technology in relation to the existing high-temperature plasma waste processing technology is that PGMCC Technology uses a closed CO2 cycle, where CO2 first of all is being sent to plasma torches as plasma-forming gas, for the second, it is fed as a nutrient to cultivated algae, the third it is used for the production of marketable goods for various industries.
Construction of the Complexes implementing PGMCC technology solves the problems of solid household and industrial waste and biomass processing on the basis of high-temperature plasma gasification, with the fullest utilization of CO2 and electric power and heat generation, as well as with the production of marketable products from CO2 and algae. These Complexes’ peculiarity is that they can be equally cost-effective to operate at capacity of
25 000 t/year to 600 000 t/year.
In the meantime the Complexes based on of PGMCC Technology help solving a wide range of problems devoted to the environmental protection and allow to generate significant amounts of electric power without releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This corresponds to EU requirements for modern energy generating facilities taking into account restrictions imposed by the Kyoto Protocol. Thus the projects for the construction of Complexes on the basis of PGMCC technology are specified as promising and innovative.
PGMCC Technology by Int-Energia Kft.
High-Temperature Plasma Processing Technology
The basis of the PGMCC Complex creation is plasma gasification technology, pyrolysis and material melting, that provides its destructinon at atomic-molecular level in the plasma reactor pyrolysis chamber without to atmospheric air access by heating it up to 2000°C bulk temperature and not less than 1500°С temperatures in melting zone. At the same time, combustion is excluded and received free atoms and molecules partially settle down and part of them (heavy molecules) is taken to the melt and another part (light atoms and molecules) is sublimated as gas. At that the composition of utilized material is of no importance. Pyrolysis off-gas temperature is up to 1300°С.
During the plasma gasification process melting occurs and environmentally friendly and chemically resistant basalt-like slag is produced, that can be used as a construction material, and as well as pyrolysis gas - a combustible gas, the main components of which are the CO and H2. A significant part of toxic compounds of heavy metals would be encapsulated in basalt-like slag.
Using this waste processing technology leads to minimization of dioxins and furans formation. After the gas cleaning, pyrolysis gas enters to the power unit, where it is used as a fuel gas for gas turbines.
Gas Turbine Technology
In the PGMCC Complex power units are used for generation electric power and heat. The power units are constructed on the basis of gas turbine generator sets that operate in a co-generation mode or combined cycle and the generated energy can be either electric power or electric power and heat. These power units’ peculiarity consists in the fact that special dual-fuel combustion chambers operating simultaneously on liquid and gaseous fuels that are used in the gas turbine generator units. As a liquid fuel algae biodiesel is used.
The use of algae as a source of fuel for gas turbines allowed to develop the Closed-Loop Cycle CCGT Power Plants for the production of green energy using biomass of algae as renewable source. The technical peculiarity of these Power Plants is that CO2 from heat recovery steam generator exhaust is captured and then served to the algae for feeding. Thus the Closed-Loop Cycle CCGT Power Plant does not require any external energy sources for operation and provides practically zero emission of СО2 thus minimizing the harmful environmental impact.
Depending on the requirements of the Customer, the Closed-Loop Cycle CCGT Power Plant is supplied with installed electrical capacity from 8.5 MW to 21.5 MW.
In order to provide a stable continuous operation of the power unit, and to increase the production of power and heat, as well as to provide high economic performance in the Complexes implementing PGMCC Technology, the algae technology is applied, providing the production of algae biomass and algae biodiesel as a fuel as well as other marketable products from algae.
Fuel, generated from algae biomass takes a special place among renewable power sources in comparison with other types of fuel generated from biomass. A significant difference of the biomass generated from algae is exactly that this biomass type has much higher energy indicators in comparison with other types of biomass generated from the other sources.
Algae are the most fast-growing plants on the Earth: their mass can increase many times within one day. Besides, they have an extra unique feature. They contain up to 50% of oil which is very important for fuel production. Algae have obvious advantage as biological raw material: they produce enormously high “crops” without using of active agricultural lands for their cultivation. Simultaneously, algae cultivation can solve ecological problems related with utilizing of carbon dioxide emitted by industry because CO2 is used for algae feeding. Today algae are one of the most future-oriented biomass sources for fuel generation.
The parts of biomass and algae oil produced during liquid biofuel production are supplied to the external consumers, which use biomass and algae oil for the following purposes:
- Algae as human food;
- Algae as poultry feed;
- Algae as animal feed.